Below you will find a useful glossary with terminology often used in our industry
Number of all lost-time-accidents at work (fatal and non-fatal) divided by the number of employed persons times 1000.
Added value at factor cost is the gross income from operating activities after adjusting for operating subsidies and indirect taxes. It can be calculated from turnover, plus capitalised production, plus other operating income, plus or minus the changes in stocks, minus the purchases of goods and services, minus other taxes on products which are linked to turnover but not deductible, minus the duties and taxes linked to production. Alternatively it can be calculated from gross operating surplus by adding personnel costs. Income and expenditure classified as financial or extra-ordinary in company accounts is excluded from value added. Value added at factor costs is calculated “gross” as value adjustments (such as depreciation) are not subtracted.
Adsorbable organic halides measured according to the EN ISO: 9562 standard method for waste waters and expressed as chloride in mg Cl/l. It includes adsorbable organically bound chlorine, bromine and iodine.
Material of biological origin excluding material embedded in geological formations and/or fossilized. Examples are (whole or parts of) plants, trees, algae, marine organisms, micro-organisms, animals, etc.
Bioliquids are liquid fuels for energy purposes other than for transport, including electricity and heating and cooling, produced from biomass. Biofuels means liquid or gaseous fuels for transport produced from biomass.
Biodegradable fraction of products, waste and residues from biological origin from agriculture (including vegetal and animal substances), forestry and related industries including fisheries and aquaculture, as well as the biodegradable fraction of industrial and municipal waste. Includes bio- based products and lignin.
Black liquor is generated in the chemical pulping process (kraft, sulphite) and recovered in the recovery boiler. Black liquor contains organic substances (essentially the separated lignin residue but also minor dissolved components of wood: extractives, hemicelluloses) and inorganic chemicals that resulted from the pulping process reactions. After washing and evaporation, the concentrated black liquor is led to the recovery system where cooking chemicals are recovered using energy made available from the combustion of organic substances. Additional energy from the flue-gases is recovered to produce heat, process steam and generate electrical power. Also known as spent cooking liquor.
Removal or modification, to a greater or lesser extent, of coloured components of pulp with a view to increasing its brightness.
A naturally occurring gas, also a by-product of burning fossil fuels from fossil carbon deposits, such as oil, gas and coal, of burning biomass, of land use changes and of industrial processes (e.g., cement production). It is the most important anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas (see definition below). CO2 emissions are fossil emissions – from stationery combustion of fossil fuels – or biogenic emissions – emissions directly resulting from the combustion, decomposition, or processing of biologically based materials other than fossil fuels, peat, and mineral sources of carbon.
May be single or multiply, coated or uncoated. It is made from virgin and/or recovered fibres, and has good folding properties, stiffness and scoring ability. It is mainly used in cartons for consumer products such as frozen food, cosmetics and for liquid containers. Includes solid board, solid bleached board, solid unbleached board, folding box board, white lined chipboard, boxboard or carrier board.
COD is the amount of chemically oxidisable organic matter in waste water (normally referring to analysis with dichromate oxidation).
Wood pulp obtained by subjecting pulpwood, wood chips or residues to a series of chemical treatments. It includes sulphate (kraft) wood pulp; soda wood pulp and sulphite wood pulp. It may be bleached, semi-bleached or unbleached. It excludes dissolving grades of wood pulp.
Chemicals are used in the paper industry in different parts of the pulp and paper making process. They can be divided into three main areas: process chemicals, functional chemicals and coating chemicals. These chemicals have different functions and different influence on the sustainability of the paper product.
Particles of wood originating from logs and branches. Chipped woody biomass in the form of pieces with a defined particle size produced by mechanical treatment with sharp tools such as knives. Wood chips have a subrectangular shape with a typical length 5 to 50 mm and a low thickness compared to other dimensions.
The definition of combined heat and power (CHP) or “cogeneration” implies that heat and electricity are produced simultaneously in one process. The overall efficiency of a CHP unit is used as a measure to determine whether the electricity generation is fully CHP or not. If the overall efficiency is above a threshold set at 75% (85% for steam condensing extraction turbines and combined cycle units), all the electricity generated is considered as CHP electricity.
Made of fibres produced mainly (90%) by a mechanical pulping process and are also known as coated groundwood.
Made of fibres produced mainly (90%) by a chemical pulping process and are also known as coated freesheet.
Process of applying, to the surface of a paper or board, one or more layers of coating slip or other materials in fluid form.
Combination of pulp, paper or board mills that carry out one or more producing activities at one or more locations within the same country, and formed in accordance with the law of the country. Company means a separate legal unit (limited, GmbH, S.A., AB. A/S, etc.) even if it is part of a bigger group, holding, etc. In some cases, companies carry out raw material supply and converting activities. The figure for the number of pulp and papermaking companies in all CEPI countries is an aggregate of all the companies from each individual country. The companies with operations in more than one country are considered as groups or corporations (see above definition).
Papers and boards mainly used in the manufacture of corrugated board. They are made from any combination of virgin and recovered fibres and can be bleached, unbleached or mottled. Fluting is the middle ply with outer layers called the liners. Includes kraftliner, testliner, semi-chemical fluting, and recovered paper-based fluting (Wellenstoff). Main uses are corrugated boxes, transport packaging, storage and product display.
Processor of paper or board as a raw material (such as packaging, printing).
Manufacture of products by processes or operations applied after the normal paper or board manufacturing process. The operation of treating, modifying, or otherwise manipulating the finished paper and paperboard so that it can be made into end-user products, such as special coating, waxing, printing, and gumming, and envelope, bag, and container manufacturing.
Water used for cooling purposes (used to absorb and remove heat). Depending upon the mill, (non- contact) cooling water may be used for process needs. It includes the fresh water which feeds the cooling water circuit (e.g. water towers) and then it is either discharged or re-circulated after re-cooling or is used as warm water in the pulping process.
Pulp made from paper for recycling from which inks and other contaminants have been removed.
Removal of ink and/or toner from a printed product to a high extent by means of a deinking process. This shall restore as good as possible the optical properties of the unprinted product.
The EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) is a voluntary management instrument developed by the European Commission for companies and other organisations (all economic and service sectors, applicable world-wide) to evaluate, report, and improve their environmental performance. EMAS is open to every type of organisation eager to improve its environmental performance. Its objective is to improve the environmental performance of organisations by having them commit to both evaluating and reducing their environmental impact, and continuously improving their environmental performance. External and independent nature of the EMAS registration process ensures credibility and reliability of the scheme. This includes both the actions taken by an organisation to continuously improve its environmental performance, and the organisation’s disclosure of information to the public through the environmental statement.
Electrical energy produced on the mill site from different primary sources such as: hydro power, steam boilers, CHPs, recovery boilers, etc.
Means the direct or indirect release of substances, vibrations, heat or noise from individual or diffuse sources […] into air, water or land.
The number of employees concerned with the manufacture of pulp and/or paper as recorded by CEPI member associations at a specific point during the year concerned. Includes all full-time and part-time employees in what might be classed as blue-collar and white-collar occupations.
Employment figures reported in CEPI annual statistics don’t include employees in converting operations. However, employees of integrated converting operations (within the producing mill) and those of headquarters are included.
All energy products, consisting of hard coal and derivatives, lignite and derivatives, peat and derivatives, crude oil and petroleum products (such as LPG, refinery gas, motor spirit, kerosene, gas/diesel oil, residual fuel oil, refuse-derived-fuels, solid-recovered-fuel), natural gas, manufactured gases, derived heat, renewable energies (such as hydro power, wind energy, biomass, wastes, geothermal energy), electrical energy and nuclear energy.
– or lignocellulosic fibrous materials – are derived from wood, non-wood fibre sources such as fibre crops (straw, bamboo, bagasse, etc.) or alternatively paper for recycling, through a recycling process. Today, wood and paper for recycling are the main fibre sources used in Europe.
Paper intended to provide selective retention of particles from a fluid suspension.
Land within a contiguous area with trees higher than 5 meters and a canopy cover of more than 10 percent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ. It does not include land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban land use.
A system for verifying that a forest is being managed sustainably according to the requirements of a forest management standard.
In Europe there exist two certification schemes: FSC – the Forest Stewardship Council – and PEFC -the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification.
Roundwood that will be used as fuel for purposes such as cooking, heating or power production. It includes wood harvested from main stems, branches and other parts of trees (where these are harvested for fuel).
Roundwood that will be used as fuel for purposes such as cooking, heating or power production. It includes wood harvested from main stems, branches and other parts of trees (where these are harvested for fuel).
Natural gas comprises gases occurring in underground deposits, whether liquefied or gaseous, consisting mainly of methane. Natural gas includes “non-associated” gas originating from fields producing hydrocarbons only in gaseous form, and “associated” gas produced in association with crude oil, as well as methane recovered from coal mines (colliery gas) and shale gas from fracking.
Derived gases are manufactured gases, comprising coke-oven gas, blast furnace gas, and gasworks gas.
The graphic papers category is an aggregate category. In the production and trade statistics, it represents the sum of newsprint; uncoated mechanical; uncoated woodfree and coated papers.
Products in this category are generally manufactured in strips or rolls of a width exceeding 15 cm or in rectangular sheets with one side exceeding 36 cm and the other exceeding 15 cm in the unfolded state. It excludes manufactured paper products such as books and magazines, etc.
Those gaseous constituents of the Earth’s atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, with properties that cause the greenhouse effect. Water vapour (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and ozone (O3) are the primary greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The Kyoto Protocol deals with these greenhouse gases, except for water vapour, as well as sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs).Other entirely human- made greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, such as the halocarbons and other chlorine- and bromine-containing substances, are dealt with under the Montreal Protocol.
A measure of economic activity, namely the value of an economy’s total output of goods and services, less intermediate consumption, plus net taxes on products and imports, in a specified period. GDP can be broken down by output, expenditure or income components. The main expenditure aggregates that make up GDP are household final consumption, government final consumption, gross fixed capital formation, changes in inventories, and imports and exports of goods and services (including intra-eu trade). GDP at market prices is the sum of the gross values added of all resident producers at market prices, plus taxes less subsidies on imports.
The wood from non-coniferous (broadleaved) trees (trees that do not have needles or cones). Include birch, eucalyptus, aspen, beech, hornbeam, ash, maple, acacia, quercus-cerris, oak, alder, poplar, willow, chestnut. The wood of these trees is composed of short fibres.
All woods derived from trees classified botanically as Angiospermae, e.g. Acer spp., Dipterocarpus spp., Entandrophragma spp., Eucalyptus spp., Fagus spp., Populus spp., Quercus spp., Shorea spp., Swietonia spp., Tectona spp., etc.
Heat is obtained from fuels combustion, nuclear reactors, geothermal reservoirs, capture of sunlight, exothermic chemical processes and heat pumps which can extract it from ambient air and liquids. It may be used for heating or cooling or converted into mechanical energy for transport vehicles or electricity generation. Commercial heat sold is reported under total final consumption with the fuel inputs allocated under power generation.
CO2 emissions from net bought electricity, calculated as “net bought electricity” multiplied by the “electricity emissions factor” applied in each country.
As specified in the Regulation on short-term statistics (STS-R), and in line with traditional practice in business statistics, the production index should show the evolution of value added at factor cost, at constant prices. Value added at factor cost can be calculated from turnover (excluding VAT), plus capitalised production, plus other operating income, plus or minus the changes in stocks, minus the purchases of goods and services, minus other taxes on products and taxes linked to production.
Paper or board which is intended to impede the transmission of certain forms of energy, for example heat, sound, electricity.
A pulp and paper mill manufacturing complex in which all pulp and papermaking operations are conducted at one site. Sometimes converting operations, such as bag and tissue manufacturing, are also included. Integrated production means that pulp and paper is produced in the same plant. The pulp is not dried before paper manufacture. Integrated mills can however also use some dried pulp acquired elsewhere.
When two or more companies (legal units not belonging to the same group/corporation) work at the same location, this is not considered as an integrated mill.
Integrated pulp is produced for use as raw material in the production of paper at the same mill, or for shipment by a producing mill to other mills, which it owns, controls or with which it is affiliated within the same country and therefore not sold on the open market.
Investments made during the reference period in all tangible goods. Included are new and existing tangible capital goods, whether bought from third parties or produced for own use (i.e. Capitalised production of tangible capital goods), having a useful life of more than one year including non- produced tangible goods such as land.
The ISO 14000 family addresses various aspects of environmental management developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). ISO 14001:2004 sets out the criteria for an environmental management system. It maps out a framework that a company or organization can follow to set up an effective environmental management system. It can be used by any organization regardless of its activity or sector and can be certified to. Using ISO 14001 can provide assurance to company management and employees as well as external stakeholders that environmental impact is being measured and improved; however the standard does not state requirements for environmental performance. ISO 14004:2004 provides guidance on the establishment, implementation, maintenance and improvement of an environmental management system and its coordination with other management systems.
Woodpulp, including rejects, obtained by mechanically reducing coniferous or non-coniferous wood to chips which are subsequently cooked in pressure vessel in presence of sodium hydroxide cooking liquor (soda pulp) or mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphide cooking liquor (sulphate pulp). It can be unbleached or bleached. End-uses are widespread, with bleached pulp particularly used for graphic papers, tissue and carton boards. Unbleached pulp is commonly used in liner for corrugated board, wrappings, sack and bag papers, envelopes and other unbleached speciality papers.
A waste disposal site for the deposit of the waste onto or into land (i.e. underground).
Wood substance, an aromatic polymer in the cell wall of plants. The binding substance in natural fibres. Lignin is dissolved out along with the carbohydrates in the pulping process.
A method by which the growing stock (or part of it) of a stand is removed. Includes the procedure from fellings to long-distance transport. Annual fellings refers to the average annual standing volume of all trees, living or dead, that are felled during the given reference period.
Pulp for sale in the open market and does not include pulp used in own plant or shipped to wholly owned or associated companies within the country. All pulp moving outside the producing country is considered to be market pulp.
Paper or board having mechanical woodpulp as an essential constituent of its fibre composition.
Woodpulp, including reject pulp, obtained by grinding or milling into their relatively short fibres, coniferous or non-coniferous rounds, quarters, billets, etc., or through refining coniferous or non- coniferous chips. Called stone groundwood pulp and refiner groundwood pulp can include pre- treatment with chemical as in chemi-mechanical pulp. It can be bleached or unbleached. This pulp is used mainly in newsprint and wood-containing papers, like LWC (light-weight coated) and SC papers.
Methane is a colourless gas, odourless at low concentrations, but with sweetish chloroform-like odour at high concentration. It is one of the six greenhouse gases to be mitigated under the Kyoto Protocol. Methane is the major component of natural gas and associated with hydrocarbon fuels (animal husbandry and agriculture). The gas is highly combustible, and mixtures of about 5 to 15 per cent in air are explosive. Upon release into the atmosphere, methane is destroyed by reactions with other chemicals in the atmosphere, giving a lifetime of about 10 years.
Paper mainly used for printing newspapers. It is made largely from mechanical pulp and/or paper for recycling, with or without a small amount of filler. Products in this category are generally manufactured in strips or rolls of a width exceeding 36 cm or in rectangular sheets with one side exceeding 36 cm and the other exceeding 15 cm in the unfolded state. Weights usually range from 40 to 52 g/m2 but can be as high as 65 g/m2. Newsprint is machine finished or slightly calendered, white or slightly coloured and is used in reels for letterpress, offset or flexo printing.
Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are together referred to as nitrogen oxides (NOX). The sum of nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), expressed as NO2.
Added to paper stock during the papermaking process in order to impart special characteristics to the final product. There are materials for sizing, loading and filling, colouring and other additives.
Non-integrated pulp mills (market pulp) are only manufacturing pulp that is then sold on the open market. Non-integrated paper mills are using purchased pulp for their paper production.
Paper or paperboard mainly used for wrapping and packaging purposes. Products in this category are generally manufactured in strips or rolls of a width exceeding 36 cm or in rectangular sheets with one side exceeding 36 cm and the other exceeding 15 cm in the unfolded state. It excludes unbleached kraft paper and paperboard that are not sack kraft paper or Kraftliner and weighing more than 150 g/m² but less than 225 g/m²; felt paper and paperboard; tracing papers; not further processed uncoated paper weighing 225 g/m² or more. It is reported in metric tonnes.
Generic term for a range of materials in the form of a coherent sheet or web, excluding sheets or laps of pulp as commonly understood for paper making or dissolving purposes and non-woven products, made by deposition of vegetable, mineral, animal or synthetic fibres, or their mixtures, from a fluid suspension onto a suitable forming device, with or without the addition of other substances.
Papers may be coated, impregnated or otherwise converted, during or after their manufacture, without necessarily losing their identity as paper. In conventional papermaking process, the fluid is water; new developments, however, include the use of air and other fluids.
The paper and paperboard category is an aggregate category. In the production and trade statistics, it represents the sum of graphic papers; sanitary and household papers; packaging materials and other paper and paperboard. It excludes manufactured paper products such as boxes, cartons, books and magazines, etc.
Natural fibre based paper and board suitable for recycling and consisting of
– Paper and board in any shape
– Products made predominately from paper and board, which may include other constituents that cannot be removed by dry sorting, such as coatings and laminates, spiral bindings, etc.
The primary machine in a paper mill on which slurries containing fibres and other constituents are formed into a sheet by the drainage of water, pressing, drying, winding into rolls, and sometimes coating. Sections of the paper making, which are at the same mill but operation offline (e.g. coaters or cutters), are counted as parts of the actual paper machine.
A paper mill is a factory or plant location where various pulps in slurry form are mechanically treated, mixed with the proper dyes, additives, and chemicals, and converted into a sheet of paper by the processes of drainage, formation, and drying on a paper machine. Some paper mills also finish the paper in various ways.
Generic term applied to certain types of paper frequently characterized by their relative high rigidity. The primary distinction between paper and board is normally based upon thickness or grammage, though in some instances the distinction will be based on the characteristics and/or end-use. For example, some materials of lower grammage, such as certain grades of folding boxboard and corrugated raw materials, are generally referred to as “board”, while other materials of higher grammage, such as certain grades of blotting paper, felt paper and drawing paper, are generally referred to as “paper”.
Agglomerates produced either directly by compression or by the addition of a binder in a proportion not exceeding 3% by weight. Such pellets are cylindrical, with a diameter not exceeding 25 mm and a length not exceeding 100 mm.
Water used in a manufacturing or treatment process or in the actual product manufactured. Examples would include water used for washing, rinsing, direct contact, cooling, solution make-up, chemical reactions, and gas scrubbing in industrial and food processing applications. In many cases, water is specifically treated to produce the quality of water needed for the process.
Practical maximum capacity is the tonnage of paper, paperboard or pulp of normal commercial quality that could be produced per year with full use of equipment and adequate supplies of raw materials and labour, and assuming full demand. No allowance is made for losses due to unscheduled shut downs, strikes, temporary lack of power, etc., which cause decreases in actual production, but not in production capacity.
Fibrous material in papermaking produced in a pulp mill, either mechanically or chemically from fibrous cellulose raw material (wood most common).
Mill which processes pulpwood, wood chips or other such cellulosic material into pulp by using mechanical, cooking, screening and bleaching methods.
The act of processing wood (or other plant) to obtain the primary raw material for making paper, usually cellulose fibre. Wood is the most widely used source of fibres for the paper making process. The fibres are separated from one another into a mass of individual fibres. The separation can be undertaken by a mechanical process, where the fibres are teased apart, or by chemical means, where the lignin binding the fibres together is dissolved away by cooking the woodchips in suitable chemicals. After separation, the fibres are washed and screened to remove any remaining fibre bundles.
Roundwood that will be used for the production of pulp, particleboard or fibreboard. It includes:
*roundwood (with or without bark) that will be used for these purposes in its round form or as
*splitwood or wood chips made directly (i.e. in the forest) from roundwood.
Electrical energy bought from outside the mill to be used on site.
Purchased heat not included in the primary energy use.
Input to pulp and paper manufacturing include (raw) materials and chemicals as well as water, energy and labour.
The basic (raw) materials to produce pulp and paper can be split into two parts: fibres – or fibrous materials – and non-fibrous materials. In the case of non-integrated paper and board mills, i.e. mills not producing their pulp, pulp can be considered as a raw material too.
Ability of a product to be recycled into a new paper and board.
Design, manufacturing and converting of paper-based products in such a way as to enable a high quality recycling of fibres and other materials in a manufacturing process in compliance – where appropriate – with current standards in the Community: as a minimum, recyclability requires that sufficient information is exchanged for appropriate risk management and safe re-use of fibres.
Pulp manufactured from paper for recycling and used for the manufacture of paper, paperboard and fibreboard. It excludes pulp made from straw; bamboo; bagasse; esparto; other reeds or grasses; cotton fibres; flax; hemp; rags; and other textile wastes.
Reprocessing of used paper in a production process into new paper and board. See also the Waste Directive 2008/98/EC
The ratio between recycling of used paper, including net trade of paper for recycling, and paper and board consumption. It is calculated as “paper for recycling utilisation + net trade” divided by “paper and board consumption”, on base paper level.
All roundwood felled or otherwise harvested and removed. It comprises all wood obtained from removals, i.e. the quantities removed from forests and from trees outside the forest, including wood recovered from natural, felling and logging losses during the period, calendar year or forest year. It includes all wood removed with or without bark, including wood removed in its round form, or split, roughly squared or in other form (e.g. branches, roots, stumps and burls (where these are harvested) and wood that is roughly shaped or pointed. It is an aggregate comprising wood fuel (including wood for charcoal) and industrial roundwood (wood in the rough). It is reported in cubic metres solid volume underbark (i.e. excluding bark)
This covers a wide range of tissue and other hygienic papers for use in households or commercial and industrial premises. Some tissue is also used in the manufacture of baby nappies, sanitary towels, etc. The parent reel stock is made from virgin pulp or recovered fibre or mixtures of these.
It is reported in the production statistics at parent reel weight before conversion to finished products. Import and export statistics however take into account trade in both parent reels and finished products. Includes types of creped and uncreped papers such as disposable tissues, facial tissue, napkin, sanitary wadding, toilet tissue towelling, and wiper stock.
Roundwood that will be sawn (or chipped) lengthways for the manufacture of sawnwood or railway sleepers (ties) or used for the production of veneer (mainly by peeling or slicing). It includes roundwood (whether or not it is roughly squared) that will be used for these purposes; shingle bolts and stave bolts; match billets and other special types of roundwood (e.g. burls and roots, etc.) used for veneer production. It is reported in cubic metres solid volume underbark.
A semifluid mass of sediment resulting from treatment of water, sewage and/or other wastes.
A soft, soupy, or muddy bottom deposit, such as found on tideland or at the bottom of a water body.
The wood from coniferous trees. Include pine, spruce, Fir, Hemlock, Larch, Cedar. The wood of these trees is composed of long fibres.
All woods derived from trees classified botanically as Gymnospermae, e.g. Abies spp., Araucaria spp., Cedrus spp., Chamaecyparis spp., Cupressus spp., Larix spp., Picea spp., Pinus spp., Thuja spp.,Tsuga spp., etc.
Net electrical energy produced on site and sent (sold) to the public grid network or other electricity consumers.
Emissions calculated per quantity of the final output (paper & board + market pulp).
Woodpulp, including rejects, obtained by mechanically reducing coniferous or non-coniferous wood to chips which are subsequently cooked in a pressure vessel in the presence of a bisulphite cooking liquor. Bisulphites such as ammonium, calcium magnesium and sodium, are commonly used. It can be unbleached or bleached. End-uses range from newsprint, printing and writing papers, tissue and sanitary papers. Sulphite can be either bleached or unbleached.
Exclude: Dissolving grades having very high alpha cellulose content (usually 90 percent or more). These should be included in dissolving pulps.
Sulphur emissions come from fossil fuel combustion by power plants, large industries, and mobile sources, and from some industrial processes. It is harmful to vegetation and contributes to adverse health effects and to the formation of ground-level ozone and fine particle pollution. Sulphur dioxide and other sulphur compounds are listed as polluting substances e.g. in the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED).
Turnover comprises the totals invoiced by the observation unit during the reference period, and this corresponds to market sales of goods or services supplied to third parties. Turnover includes all duties and taxes on the goods or services invoiced by the unit with the exception of the VAT invoiced by the unit vis-à-vis its customer and other similar deductible taxes directly linked to turnover. It also includes all other charges (transport, packaging, etc.) passed on to the customer, even if these charges are listed separately in the invoice. Reduction in prices, rebates and discounts as well as the value of returned packing must be deducted. Income classified as other operating income, financial income and extra-ordinary income in company accounts is excluded from turnover. Operating subsidies received from public authorities or the institutions of the European Union are also excluded.
Pulp that has not been subjected to any treatment which is intended primarily to increase its brightness.
Paper suitable for printing or other graphic purposes where less than 90% of the fibre furnish consists of chemical pulp fibres. This grade is also known as groundwood or wood-containing paper and magazine paper, such as heavily filled supercalendered paper for consumer magazines printed by the rotogravure and offset methods. It excludes wallpaper base.
Paper suitable for printing or other graphic purposes, where at least 90% of the fibre furnish consists of chemical pulp fibres. Uncoated woodfree paper can be made from a variety or furnishes, with variable levels of mineral filler and a range of finishing processes such as sizing, calendering, machine glazing and watermarking. This grade includes most office papers, such as business forms, copier, computer, stationery and book papers. Pigmented and size press “coated” papers (coating less than 5 g per side) are covered by this heading. It excludes wallpaper base.
Pulp consisting of unused fibres. It contains no secondary or recycled fibres.
Waste water treatment techniques are end-of-pipe (secondary techniques or abatement techniques). Because it is not always possible to prevent pollution at the source, end-of-pipe techniques are those that treat the waste stream arising from a process or storage unit, or an area, or part thereof, to reduce its pollutant content. Waste water treatment techniques aim to reduce waste water and the pollutants it carries. They encompass pre-treatment at the source or in combined streams as well as final treatment of collected waste water before discharge into a receiving water body.
Equals water lost during manufacturing plus water in sold products and water in waste – i.e. “the portion of the water that is removed from a water source that is not immediately returned to the water source.”
The amount of freshwater abstracted by source and any other water received at the mill and the amount of water content in purchased materials and products for the purpose of pulp and paper production.
All roundwood felled or otherwise harvested and removed. It comprises all wood obtained from removals, i.e. the quantities removed from forests and from trees outside the forest, including wood recovered from natural, felling and logging losses during the period, calendar year or forest year. It includes all wood removed with or without bark, including wood removed in its round form, or split, roughly squared or in other form (e.g. branches, roots, stumps and burls (where these are harvested) and wood that is roughly shaped or pointed. It is an aggregate comprising wood fuel (including wood for charcoal) and industrial roundwood (wood in the rough).
The wood used for pulp and paper manufacturing is mainly constituted of the following assortments: pulpwood (roundwood other than sawlogs, from silvicultural measures such as thinning or final felling), chips and residues from sawmills. The utilisation of sawlogs is very limited and sawdust volumes consumed are negligible. The relative shares of softwood and hardwood used depend on the country considered and the pulp and paper grades produced. The main softwood species used are pine and spruce. The main hardwood species used are birch, eucalyptus, beech and aspen. Oak is hardly used.
The volume of roundwood that is left over after the production of forest products in the forest processing industry (i.e. forest processing residues) and that has not been reduced to chips or particles. It includes sawmill rejects, slabs, edgings and trimmings, veneer log cores, veneer rejects, sawdust (fine particles created when sawing wood), residues from carpentry and joinery production and agglomerated products such as logs, briquettes, pellets or similar forms. It excludes wood chips made either directly in the forest from roundwood or made from residues (i.e. already counted as pulpwood, round and split or wood chips and particles).
Fibrous material prepared from pulpwood, wood chips or residues by mechanical and/or chemical process for further manufacture into paper, paperboard, fibreboard or other cellulose products. It is an aggregate comprising mechanical wood pulp; semi-chemical wood pulp; chemical wood pulp; and dissolving wood pulp.
Paper or board having, in principle, only chemical pulp in its fibre composition. In practice, it may contain a small amount of other pulps.
Papers whose main use is wrapping or packaging made from any combination of virgin or recovered fibres, bleached or unbleached. They may be subject to various finishing and/or marking processes. Includes sack kraft, other wrapping krafts, sulphite and grease-proof papers.